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Chain of Craters Road to be rebuilt as emergency route

September 22, 2014

The National Park Service announced today that it will work with the State and County of Hawai‘i to construct an emergency route along the former Chain of Craters Road to assist residents of lower Puna, whose access to the rest of the island would be cut off if lava covers Highway 130.

For the past several weeks, we have been putting all of our efforts into getting approval for an alternate route that can be used during this devastating emergency,” said Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park Superintendent Cindy Orlando.

Scientists at the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory estimated on Sept. 19 that based on the flow’s location and rate of advancement at that time, lava from Kīlauea Volcano’s Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent could reach Highway 130 in 21 days – but noted as of Sept. 22, the lava flow advance rate has slowed.

The route, mostly within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, would provide emergency access for the community and would not be open for visitor use. Nearly eight miles of the coastal section of Chain of Craters Road is buried beneath rough, hardened lava, and 5.4 miles is within the national park.

The open section of Chain of Craters Road spans 19 miles from the summit of Kīlauea to sea level within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Opened in 1965, the road has been blocked by lava for 37 of its 49-year existence.

To protect park resources, the emergency route will follow the old lava-covered road alignment as much as practicable.

“The NPS is deeply concerned about this potential disaster to our community, our friends, families, employees and volunteers,” said Orlando. “We have been working diligently with our partners to find an acceptable solution in accordance with federal law,” she said.

Lava Flow Reaches Open Ground

September 20, 2014

View of the narrow flow front. Kaohe Homesteads is in the lower left portion of the image. The vent for the June 27th lava flow is on Puʻu ʻŌʻō, which can be seen on the skyline. (USGS)

The following photos and video were released by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS) (Dated September 19, 2014) . Note: these photos and video were not taken in areas currently accessible to the public. (You can visit the official website of Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park for current information on the areas of Kilauea that are open to public). Click here to see photos from previous post.

View of the flow front, looking north. Pāhoa is located in the upper right portion of the photograph. The flow front today was 3.4 km (2.1 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road. (USGS)

CLICK PHOTO TO WATCH VIDEO: This Quicktime movie gives a quick aerial overview of the activity at the front of the June 27th lava flow. Kaohe Homesteads is in the lower left. (USGS)

Views of the flow front from two different angles, with equivalent thermal images for comparison. The thermal images show that surface breakouts were focused on three areas near the flow front: 1) the flow front itself, 2) an area 300 meters (yards) behind the flow front and 3) a larger area about 1 km (0.6 miles) behind the flow front. (USGS)

A close-up view of the surface of the June 27th lava flow, near the flow front. The pāhoehoe flow is too thin and slow to topple trees as it passes, but instead the lava surrounds the trees and burns through the base. When the trees fall over, the flow surface may have cooled enough that the trunks remain intact. If the surface is hot enough to burn through the fallen trunks, all that remains is a line of ashen residue (see right side of image). (USGS)

This map uses satellite imagery acquired in March 2014 as a base image to show the area around the front of the June 27th lava flow. The blue line and arrowheads show the projected path of the flow over the next two weeks (to October 3), based on the average flow rate over the last two days and the local topography. Lava flow behavior is complex and this projection is subject to change. Satellite image provided by Digital Globe. (USGS)

This large-scale map shows the distal part of the June 27th flow in relation to nearby Puna communities. The black dots mark the flow front on specific dates. The latitude and longitude of the flow front on September 19 was 19.47593/-154.975505 (Decimal degrees; WGS84). The blue lines show down-slope paths calculated from a 1983 digital elevation model (DEM; for calculation details, see http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1264/). Down-slope path analysis is based on the assumption that the DEM perfectly represents the earth’s surface. DEMs, however, are not perfect, so the blue lines on this map indicate approximate flow path directions. The purple arrow shows a short term projection of flow direction based on topography. (USGS)

This small-scale map shows the June 27th flow in Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone in relation to lower Puna. The area of the flow on September 17, 2014, at 3:45 PM is shown in pink, while widening and advancement of the flow as mapped on September 19 at 11:45 AM is shown in red. The front of the active flow was 16.4 km (10.2 miles; straight-line distance) from the vent and 2.4 km (1.5 miles) upslope from Cemetery Road. The actual length of the flow, measured along the lava tube axis (so that bends in the flow are considered) was 18.7 km (11.6 miles). The blue lines show down-slope paths calculated from a 1983 digital elevation model (DEM). For an explanation of down-slope path calculations, see: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1264/. Down-slope path analysis is based on the assumption that the DEM perfectly represents the earth’s surface. DEMs, however, are not perfect, so the blue lines on this map indicate approximate flow path directions. The purple arrow shows a short term projection of flow direction based on topography. All older Puʻu ʻŌʻō lava flows (1983–2014) are shown in gray; the yellow line marks the lava tube. (USGS)

 

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and Hawaii County Civil Defense Jointly Track Lava Flow

September 19, 2014

HVO geologists conduct a VLF (very-low frequency) survey to measure the rate of lava flowing through the lava tube on the June 27th lava flow. (USGS)

The following is this week’s edition of “Volcano Watch” from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory:

(Click to see the most recent post with the latest photos and videos of the lava flow in Puna)

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) and Hawaiʻi County Civil Defense (HCCD) are working closely together to gather and share information about the June 27th lava flow through daily helicopter overflights. Currently, Darryl Oliveira (HCCD Administrator) flies early each morning to measure the flow’s advancement and direction and to assess fire and smoke conditions. These observations are compiled in a report available to the public later the same morning at http://www.hawaiicounty.gov/active-alerts/.

HVO overflights are scheduled 3–4 times per week to complement the County flights, with additional flights as necessary. During the HVO flights, geologists map the perimeter of the flow from the air, take photos, video, and infrared imagery, and assess eruptive conditions along the flow and at Puʻu ʻŌʻō. On at least one of these flights each week, we sample the lava to determine whether the chemistry of the lava is changing (it’s not).

We also try to measure the volume of lava being erupted by estimating the amount of lava flowing through the June 27th lava tube. This low-precision method suggests that between about 300,000 and 500,000 cubic meters (55,000–92,000 gallons per minute) of lava are being erupted each day, which spans the long-term average for the eruption as a whole (since 1983).

This map uses a satellite image acquired in March 2014 as a base image to show the area around the front of the June 27th lava flow. The purple arrows show the projected path of the flow over the coming two weeks, based on the current flow activity and local topography. Lava flow behavior is complex and this projection is subject to change. Satellite image provided by Digital Globe. (USGS)

Based on feedback from the public, it’s clear that our maps are an important means of communicating information about the lava flow. Therefore, we’d like to offer some clarification of the information included in the maps. Each HVO map shows the current position of the June 27th lava flow relative to nearby structures. By comparing the current position with past flow positions, we estimate the flow’s current advance rate, which has varied over the past week.

An important feature now included on HVO’s maps is the calculated paths of steepest descent, shown as blue lines. These blue lines are not stream beds, but can be envisioned as the regional drainage pattern. In other words, they are the paths where any fluid, including lava, would be likely to flow.

In addition to thoroughly documenting the current position and advance rate of the flow, HVO scientists also recalculate the downslope paths from the newly mapped flow-front position to get the best sense of where the lava is headed. While the regional drainage pattern gives us a fairly good idea, it is based on a digital elevation model (DEM) that may have errors in it. With the new downslope path calculations, however, random variations of plus or minus 5 m (16 ft) elevation are added to the original DEM at random locations to see if, after thousands of runs, this “noise” significantly changes the downslope path.

The results from these secondary calculations do not differ significantly from the regional drainage pattern, but they do show us how some of the downslope paths can be connected in ways that may not be obvious in the regional map. This helps us to choose which one of the possible regional drainage lines is the preferred future lava-flow path. As part of the post-overflight maps, we now indicate that preferred path on a satellite image as a series of arrows that illustrate the next two weeks of time.

(September 19, 2014) The June 27th flow remains active and heading northeast, moving through Kaohe Homesteads. For several weeks the flow has been moving through thick forest, and today the flow front reached the forest boundary and more open ground. Nevertheless, active portions of the flow remain in the forest and fires continue. The flow front today was 2.4 km (1.5 miles) upslope of Apaʻa St. (USGS)

Based on the data we acquired during the overflight, HVO issues a forecast in the form of a Volcanic Activity Notice (VAN) that is posted on the HVO website along with the Kīlauea daily eruption update (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/activity/kilaueastatus.php). The VAN includes our best estimates of when the June 27th lava flow will reach significant infrastructures based on the flow’s current advance rate. You can sign up to receive VANs, which are distributed via the USGS Volcano Notification Service (VNS), by subscribing to VNS at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns/.

HVO products—maps, photos, videos, updates and VANs—can all be accessed online at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/activity/kilaueastatus.php, or through links listed in the yellow box on our homepage (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov).

Our products evolve in response to the needs and requests from partner agencies and the public. We have received a lot of feedback, both positive and negative, via our email address, askHVO@usgs.gov, and continue to welcome constructive comments and suggestions.

We also encourage Puna residents to stay informed about the June 27th lava flow. As stated in last week’s Volcano Watch article, while we are hoping for the best, we must also plan for the worst.

Lava Flow Continues Advancing Northeast in Kaohe Homesteads

September 18, 2014

The June 27th lava flow remains active and continues advancing northeast in the forested, northwest portion of Kaohe Homesteads. The flow front today was 2.7 km (1.7 miles) from Apaʻa st. and 3.8 km (2.3 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road. Over past two days, the flow front has advanced at an average rate of 290 m/day (960 ft/day). (USGS)

The following photos and video were released by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS) (Dated September 17, 2014) . Note: these photos and video were not taken in areas currently accessible to the public. (You can visit the official website of Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park for current information on the areas of Kilauea that are open to public). Click here to see photos from previous post.

A view looking down the axis of the flow at the flow front. Pāhoa is in the upper right portion of the photograph. (USGS)

This large-scale map shows the distal part of the June 27th flow in relation to nearby Puna communities. The black dots mark the flow front on specific dates. The latitude and longitude of the flow front on September 17 was 19.4737016 /-154.977834 (Decimal degrees; WGS84). The blue lines show down-slope paths calculated from a 1983 digital elevation model (DEM; for calculation details, see http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1264/). Down-slope path analysis is based on the assumption that the digital elevation model (DEM) perfectly represents the earth’s surface. But, DEMs are not perfect, so the blue lines on this map indicate approximate flow path directions. The purple arrow shows a short term projection of flow direction based on the flow behavior over the past several days and the local topography. (USGS)

A close-up view of the flow surface near the flow front, which consisted of numerous, scattered small pāhoehoe lobes. (USGS)

This map uses a satellite image acquired in March 2014 as a base image to show the area around the front of the June 27th lava flow. The purple arrows show the projected path of the flow over the coming two weeks, based on the current flow activity and local topography. Lava flow behavior is complex and this projection is subject to change. Satellite image provided by Digital Globe. (USGS)

A view of the leading tip of the flow, which was moving through thick forest. (USGS)

CLICK PHOTO TO WATCH VIDEO: This Quicktime movie provides a brief aerial overview of activity at the flow front. Kaohe Homesteads is in the lower left. (USGS)

This thermal image shows the scattered pāhoehoe lobes that are active near the front of the June 27th flow. (USGS)

The summit eruption continues, with an active lava lake within Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Halemaʻumaʻu fills up most of the image, and the lava lake can be seen near the bottom of the image contained within the smaller Overlook crater. (USGS)

A closer look at the lava lake at Kīlauea’s summit. The lake was roughly 53 m (170 ft) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater this morning. (USGS)

The following photos and video were released on September 15, 2014:

A closer view of surface activity on the June 27th lava flow. This pāhoehoe flow consists of many small, scattered, slow-moving lobes burning vegetation. (USGS)

HVO geologists conduct a VLF (very-low frequency) survey to measure the rate of lava flowing through the lava tube on the June 27th lava flow. (USGS)

An HVO geologist conducts a very-low frequency (VLF) survey of the lava tube to measure the rate of lava flowing through the tube. The measurement consists of two steps. First, a transect of VLF measurements across the roof of the tube is used to measure the cross-sectional area of lava flowing through the tube. Second, a radar gun is used to measure the speed that lava is flowing at that location. An open skylight is required for this speed measurement. By multiplying the cross-sectional area with the velocity, the volume rate of lava flowing through the tube can be estimated. Today’s measurement showed a flow rate of 5.8 cubic meters per second (roughly 1500 gallons per second). Tracking the lava supply rate like this can be helpful for anticipating fluctuations in activity at the flow front.(USGS)

CLICK PHOTO TO WATCH VIDEO: This Quicktime movie shows the view through a skylight on the lava tube, which provided a clear view of the flowing lava stream. (USGS)

CLICK PHOTO TO WATCH VIDEO: This Quicktime movie provides an aerial view of activity near the front of the June 27th flow, where numerous pāhoehoe lobes are slowly burning vegetation. (USGS)

 

 

 

Celebrating Hawaii’s Hispanic Heritage

September 17, 2014
The Hawaiian "paniolo" culture began in the 1800's with the influence of Mexican vaqueros. In this photo, cattle are being taken out to a steamer at Kawaihae on Hawaii Island.

The Hawaiian “paniolo” culture began in the 1800’s with the influence of Mexican vaqueros. In this photo, cattle are being taken out to a steamer at Kawaihae on Hawaii Island.

In recognition of the Presidential Proclamation declaring September 15 through October 15 “National Hispanic Heritage Month, 2014 ” we thought we’d share some interesting aspects of Hawaii’s Hispanic heritage.

For well over 200 years, Hawaii has experienced a surprisingly rich Hispanic heritage. In fact, there are some who speculate that the Spanish may have actually arrived in the Islands prior to Captain Cook. According to one source:

Spanish tradition indicates some not-well-substantiated discoveries of
the Islas del Rey, Islas de los Jardines, Islas de las Tablas, or Islas de la
Mesa, all or any of which might have been Hawaii. (See: The Spanish in Hawaii: Gaytan to Marin)

What we do know is that sometime in the early 1790’s, when Kamehameha the Great was consolidating the Hawaiian Islands, it is believed that a foreign ship arrived in Hawaii with a young Spanish adventurer, Don Francisco de Paula y Marin. Although he served the King and the foreign delegations as an effective translator and negotiator, his most lasting achievement was in the field of agriculture.

Although today the image of a fresh Pineapple is one of those symbols people often associate with Hawaii, this “Hawaiian” fruit was actually brought here from South America. “Scene on a pineapple plantation, with harvested pineapples, Hawaii” (Courtesy Library of Congress)

It is widely held that Marin introduced the first pineapples and coffee to the Islands in the early 1800’s. Both of these crops eventually became important economic resources for Hawaii well into the 20th Century. According to translations of his journal, by 1820 he had planted, pineapples, oranges, beans, cabbages, potatoes, peaches, chirimoyas, horse radish, melons, tobacco, carrots, asparaus, maize, fig trees, lemons and lettuce and had been engaged in processing sugar and in making kukui oil, cooca nut oil, candles, tiles, hay, cigars. As well, Marin served as a sail maker for visiting ships, a butcher, cook, mason, ship carpenter and physician, among many other endeavors.

In 1819, he was sent to Hawai`i Island to attend the ailing Kamehameha as his physician and was present at his death on May 8, 1819. Very literally Marin helped plant the first seeds of what would become the major economic engine of Hawaii for well over a century. As a side note, it is also believed that he was the first non-Hawaiian to be given possession of Ford Island (see: History of U.S. Naval Air Station, Pearl Harbor). But of course Hawaii’s Hispanic heritage did not stop with him.

With the first cattle being brought to Hawaii in the early 1790’s, there arose the need to be able to handle the vast herds that roamed freely in Hawaii. In the early 1830’s Kamehameha III at the advice of John Palmer Parker contracted the first Mexican vaqueros to help teach the Hawaiians how to manage and maintain their cattle. These vaqueros, called “paniolos” (Hawaiian pronunciation of “espanol”), trained Hawaiian men how to rope and herd the cattle…years before such activities would be associated with the “Wild West” in the United States. This “paniolo” culture still exists in such places as Waimea on the Big Island, whose Hawaiian cowboys have won world-wide fame in rodeos for well over a century, including at the prestigious Cheyenne Frontier Days in Wyoming.

Around 1900, Puerto Ricans immigrated to Hawaii to work on the plantations. Besides bringing their language with them, these new immigrants to Hawaii brought their distinctive culture, music and food to the Islands. Today, well over 30,000 Puerto Ricans live in Hawaii and many have served in important posts in government and in business.

Of course these are but a few examples of the great influence Hispanic Americans have had on the culture and history of Hawaii!

Aloha! Have a Happy National Hispanic Heritage Month!

October 2014 Events at Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park

September 16, 2014

Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park continues its tradition of sharing Hawaiian culture and After Dark in the Park programs with the community and visitors in October. All programs are free, but park entrance fees may apply. Programs are co-sponsored by the Hawai‘i Pacific Parks Association. Mark the calendar for these upcoming events:

Kilohana Domingo

Master lei hulu artist, Kilohana Domingo

Lei Hulu Demonstration. Join master lei maker Kilohana Domingo as he demonstrates the intricate art of feather work. See his prized and highly sought after nā lei hulu. Kilohana has taught classes in Hawai‘i and on the mainland.  Part of Hawai‘i Volcanoes’ ongoing ‘Ike Hana No‘eau “Experience the Skillful Work” workshops. Free.
When: Wed., Oct. 8 from 10 a.m. to 12 p.m.
Where: Kīlauea Visitor Center lānai

Patrick V. Kirch

Patrick V. Kirch speaks about the settlement of the Pacific.

The Settlement of the Pacific and Hawaiian Origins: A Perspective from Archeology. When Captain James Cook and other European explorers entered the Pacific in the 18th century, they were astounded to find that virtually every single island was already populated by indigenous island cultures. Where had the ancestors of these island people come from, and how did they manage to discover and settle even the most remote islands, including Hawai‘i? Over the past century, archeologists have sought the answers to these questions.  Patrick V. Kirch, Chancellor’s Professor Emeritus at the University of California at Berkeley, reviews the history and presents current evidence for the history of human settlement throughout the Pacific.  Part of Hawai‘i Volcanoes’ ongoing After Dark in the Park series.  Free, and your $2 donation helps support After Dark programs.
When: Tues., Oct. 14, from 7 p.m. to 8 p.m.
Where: Kīlauea Visitor Center Auditorium

Honoring Pele at Kīlauea

Hālau Hula Kalehuaki‘eki‘eika‘iu ma Kīlauea

Hula Performance. Enjoy an evening of Hawaiian dance through the art of hula, as performed by Hālau Hula Kalehuaki‘eki‘eika‘iu ma Kīlauea, under the direction of kumu hula Ab Kawainohoikala‘i Valencia. Part of Hawai‘i Volcanoes’ ongoing Nā Leo Manu “Heavenly Voices” presentations. Free.
When: Wed., Oct. 15 from 6:30 to 8 p.m. 
Where:
Kīlauea Visitor Center Auditorium

Joshua Kalima

Hawaiian cultural practitioner, Joshua Kalima

Lei-Making Demonstration. Joshua Kalima, who has been immersed in the traditional Hawaiian practices since the age of five, shares his knowledge and love of creating beautiful lei. Part of Hawai‘i Volcanoes’ ongoing ‘Ike Hana No‘eau “Experience the Skillful Work” workshops. Free.
When: Wed., Oct. 22 from 10 a.m. to 12 p.m.
Where: Kīlauea Visitor Center lānai

Joe Iacuzzo and "Samson," the T-Rex

Joe Iacuzzo and “Samson,” the T-Rex

 

National Fossil Day! Ka‘ū Learning Academy co-founder Joe Iacuzzo, the Hawai‘i representative for the National Park Service National Fossil Day, will present a talk titled “Thomas Jefferson to Johnson Space Center: Fossil History in America.” Joe worked for six years on Jurassic Park at Universal Pictures and created an award-winning dinosaur documentary film for Discovery Channel. He has been involved with numerous dinosaur discoveries and is the most widely read dinosaur science writer in the world. Part of Hawai‘i Volcanoes’ ongoing After Dark in the Park series. Free, and your $2 donation helps support After Dark programs.
When: Tues., Oct. 21, from 7 p.m. to 8 p.m.
Where: Kīlauea Visitor Center Auditorium

"The fish that grunts like a pig"

Humuhumunukunukuapua‘a. Courtesy image by Keoki Stender

Puna ‘Ohana Day. Keiki of all ages are invited to join park rangers and Lois Sanekane to learn all about Hawaiian sea life. Sign up for this free program which includes lunch by calling (808) 985-6019; register by Oct. 17 for lunch. Sponsored by the Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai‘i Pacific Parks Association, and the Queen Liliuokalani Children’s Center. Free.
When: Sat., Oct. 25 from 10 a.m. to noon.
Where: Maku‘u Farmer’s Market off Highway 130 in Puna

Find posters of these events online: http://www.nps.gov/havo/planyourvisit/events.htm.

 

 

Hawai‘i Volcanoes Offers Free Entry on National Public Lands Day, Sept. 27

September 12, 2014

Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park invites everyone to volunteer and help protect the park’s native ecology on National Public Lands Day, Sat., Sept. 27. Everyone gets in for free, and volunteers at Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park will receive a free pass to use on another day of their choosing.

National Public Lands Day (NPLD) is the largest single-day volunteer effort for public lands in the United States, and all fee-charging national parks offer free entry.  Many parks and public lands across the nation organize stewardship projects and special programs on NPLD to raise awareness about why it is important to protect our public lands.

Stewardship at the Summit. Join Park Ecologist David Benitez and volunteers Paul and Jane Field , and remove Himalayan ginger from the summit of Kīlauea.  While pretty and fragrant, Himalayan (also called kāhili) ginger is one of the most invasive plants in the park, and on earth. It’s listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature as one of the 100 World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species. The park strives to protect the rainforest habitat of native birds and plants, but Himalayan ginger takes over the native rainforest understory, making it impossible for the next generation of forest to grow, and it crowds out many native plants, including pa‘iniu (a Hawaiian lily), ‘ama‘u fern, and others. Wear sturdy, closed-toe shoes and long pants. Bring a hat, sunscreen, raingear, snacks, and water. Loppers/gloves provided.  No advance registration required.
When: Sat., Sept. 27, 9 a.m. to noon
Where:
Meet at Kīlauea Visitor Center

Himalayan ginger

Volunteer Jane Field removes invasive ginger from Halema‘uma‘u Trail. NPS Photo/J.Ferracane

 Highway 11 Beautification
Join Park Ranger Nainoa Keana‘aina and pick up trash along the stretch of Highway 11 that runs through the park. Meet Ranger Nainoa at Mile Marker 40, approximately 12 miles from the entrance on the Ka‘ū side of the park. Wear sturdy, closed-toe shoes and long pants. Bring a hat, sunscreen, raingear, snacks, gloves, and water. Rubbish bags and safety vests provided. No advance registration required.
When: Sat., Sept. 27, 9 a.m. to 11 a.m.
Where: Meet Ranger Nainoa on Highway 11 at Mile Marker 40

Ranger Nainoa

Meet Ranger Nainoa at Mile Marker 40 for the Highway 11 beautification program. NPS Photo/Jay Robinson

Kīlauea Iki Ecology Hike.
Ranger Dean Gallagher will guide a four-mile, three-hour moderately difficult hike through rainforest into Kīlauea Iki crater, and explain why protecting this diverse ecosystem thriving at the summit of erupting Kīlauea Volcano is so important. Wear sturdy, closed-toe shoes and long pants. Bring a hat, sunscreen, raingear, snacks, and water. No advance registration required.
When: Sat., Sept. 27, 12:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m.
Where: Meet Ranger Dean at Kīlauea Overlook

Kilauea Iki

Meet Ranger Dean at the Kīlauea Overlook for an ecology hike. NPS Photo/Michael Szoenyi

 

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