Marine Biodiversity of Samoa
Turning to our marine environment, we find the opposite situation. There is an incredibly diverse ecosystem just beneath the waves. Coral reefs are among the most species-rich ecosystems in the world. We have, for example, 961 nearshore fish species which is an amazingly high number compared to many other coastal areas. To get a sense of this species-rich environment, if you were to dive on our reefs once a week, you could in theory see a new fish species on every dive for 18 years.
Although coral reefs are limited to shallow waters, usually around the fringes of islands, most coral reef species have eggs and larvae that can survive for weeks or months in the open ocean and get dispersed by ocean currents to new locations. As a result of this genetic exchange of marine organisms between islands, there are probably few marine species that are unique to the Samoan islands.
Finally, superimposed over the South Pacific region is a large-scale pattern of species distributions. Most of our marine and land species can be traced back to the same or related species inhabiting mainland and insular southeast Asia. From that center of remarkably high diversity, rainforest and coral reef species radiated out, spreading eastward across the South Pacific islands. But like ripples in a pond, the farther away one gets from that ‘center’, the fewer the species (see map below). This same pattern applies to corals, fishes, sea turtles, seagrasses, mangroves, land birds, and plants. Very few species reached here from the opposite direction (South America) probably due to the much greater distance and fewer islands in that direction to facilitate ‘island hopping’.